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MySQL database back-up maken

Een MySQL back-up maken is net zo belangrijk als het maken van een website back-up. Door een MySQL database back-up te maken verzeker je ervan dat jouw WordPress, Joomla, Drupal of eigen CMS website weer snel in de lucht is mocht er iets mee gebeuren (bijvoorbeeld een website hack). Alle content staat opgeslagen in deze MySQL database back-up en daarom is een website én MySQL back-up zó belangrijk! Lees hier hoe…

Het Cobian Backup-programma dat we in het eerdere artikel gebruikten kan helaas geen MySQL database back-ups maken. Hiervoor hebben we een ander programma nodig: MySQL Workbench. In dit artikel maak ik een MySQL back-up met de grafische MySQL Workbench, én via de opdrachtprompt met mysqldump (MySQL command line utilities).

MySQL Workbench noem ik ook in het artikel MySQL-database beheren. Werk je liever online via phpMyAdmin? Zie dan het artikel Met phpMyAdmin een MySQL back-up maken.

Je moet ook jouw MySQL database inloggegevens bij de hand hebben. Via FTP kun je het /wp-config.php (WordPress), /configuration.php (Joomla), of /sites/default/settings.php (Drupal) downloaden. Hier staan ze in. Neem bij twijfel contact op met je hostingprovider.

Download en installeer nu eerst MySQL Workbench.

MySQL database back-up met MySQL Workbench

Het maken van een MySQL back-up met MySQL Workbench is vrij eenvoudig:
Nadat je MySQL Workbench hebt geïnstalleerd en opgestart, kies je voor Manage Connections in het menu-item Database.

In het nieuwe scherm, klik linksonder op New, en vul het venster in met jouw databasegegevens. Gebruik eventeel Test connection om te verifieren dat de gegevens juist zijn. Sluit af met Close.

De zojuist aangemaakte MySQL verbinding staat nu op het hoofdscherm van MySQL Workbench. Klik deze aan om een verbinding met de database te maken.

Als alles goed is gegaan is de verbinding met jouw MySQL database gemaakt. Je kunt nu een MySQL back-up maken via het onderdeel Data Export in het menu-item Server.

Om de back-up te maken van jouw MySQL database, vink de database (Schema) aan onder Object Selection. Maak een keuze uit Objects to Export (het beste kun je alles aangevinkt laten staan, tenzij je weet dat jouw database geen Stored Procedures, Events of Triggers gebruikt.

Omdat ik graag de database in één .sql-bestand heb staan, heb ik ook Export to Self-Contained File aangevinkt.

Klik Start Export om het maken van de MySQL back-up te starten.

In dit laatste venster zie je een bevestiging dat de back-up is gemaakt en daarna kun je dit afsluiten.

Klaar, de MySQL back-up is gemaakt! Dat was simpel he?!

MySQL database back-up via de opdrachtprompt

command line fu

Om via de opdrachtprompt een MySQL back-up te maken moet je weten dat tijdens het installeren van MySQL Workbench er ook een uitvoerbaar bestand mysqldump.exe is geplaatst. Je vindt deze in de map C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Workbench 6.2 CE.

Start nu eerst een opdrachtprompt via cmd.exe (Windows toets + R). Ga naar de locatie waar je de MySQL back-up graag wilt hebben staan, in mijn geval: cd backups

Met de mysqldump.exe parameter --help wordt de help weergegeven. Schrik niet van de hoeveelheid informatie, lees het eens op je gemak door (klik hier om de help over te slaan):

mysqldump Ver 10.13 Distrib 5.6.23, for Win64 (x86_64) Copyright (c) 2000, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Dumping structure and contents of MySQL databases and tables. Usage: mysqldump [OPTIONS] database [tables] OR mysqldump [OPTIONS] --databases [OPTIONS] DB1 [DB2 DB3...] OR mysqldump [OPTIONS] --all-databases [OPTIONS] Default options are read from the following files in the given order: C:\WINDOWS\my.ini C:\WINDOWS\my.cnf C:\my.ini C:\my.cnf C:\Program Files\MySQL\my.ini C:\Program Files\MySQL\my.cnf The following groups are read: mysqldump client The following options may be given as the first argument: --print-defaults Print the program argument list and exit. --no-defaults Don't read default options from any option file, except for login file. --defaults-file=# Only read default options from the given file #. --defaults-extra-file=# Read this file after the global files are read. --defaults-group-suffix=# Also read groups with concat(group, suffix) --login-path=# Read this path from the login file. -A, --all-databases Dump all the databases. This will be same as --databases with all databases selected. -Y, --all-tablespaces Dump all the tablespaces. -y, --no-tablespaces Do not dump any tablespace information. --add-drop-database Add a DROP DATABASE before each create. --add-drop-table Add a DROP TABLE before each create. (Defaults to on; use --skip-add-drop-table to disable.) --add-drop-trigger Add a DROP TRIGGER before each create. --add-locks Add locks around INSERT statements. (Defaults to on; use --skip-add-locks to disable.) --allow-keywords Allow creation of column names that are keywords. --apply-slave-statements Adds 'STOP SLAVE' prior to 'CHANGE MASTER' and 'START SLAVE' to bottom of dump. --bind-address=name IP address to bind to. --character-sets-dir=name Directory for character set files. -i, --comments Write additional information. (Defaults to on; use --skip-comments to disable.) --compatible=name Change the dump to be compatible with a given mode. By default tables are dumped in a format optimized for MySQL. Legal modes are: ansi, mysql323, mysql40, postgresql, oracle, mssql, db2, maxdb, no_key_options, no_table_options, no_field_options. One can use several modes separated by commas. Note: Requires MySQL server version 4.1.0 or higher. This option is ignored with earlier server versions. --compact Give less verbose output (useful for debugging). Disables structure comments and header/footer constructs. Enables options --skip-add-drop-table --skip-add-locks --skip-comments --skip-disable-keys --skip-set-charset. -c, --complete-insert Use complete insert statements. -C, --compress Use compression in server/client protocol. -a, --create-options Include all MySQL specific create options. (Defaults to on; use --skip-create-options to disable.) -B, --databases Dump several databases. Note the difference in usage; in this case no tables are given. All name arguments are regarded as database names. 'USE db_name;' will be included in the output. -#, --debug[=#] This is a non-debug version. Catch this and exit. --debug-check Check memory and open file usage at exit. --debug-info Print some debug info at exit. --default-character-set=name Set the default character set. --delayed-insert Insert rows with INSERT DELAYED. --delete-master-logs Delete logs on master after backup. This automatically enables --master-data. -K, --disable-keys '/*!40000 ALTER TABLE tb_name DISABLE KEYS */; and '/*!40000 ALTER TABLE tb_name ENABLE KEYS */; will be put in the output. (Defaults to on; use --skip-disable-keys to disable.) --dump-slave[=#] This causes the binary log position and filename of the master to be appended to the dumped data output. Setting the value to 1, will printit as a CHANGE MASTER command in the dumped data output; if equal to 2, that command will be prefixed with a comment symbol. This option will turn --lock-all-tables on, unless --single-transaction is specified too (in which case a global read lock is only taken a short time at the beginning of the dump - don't forget to read about --single-transaction below). In all cases any action on logs will happen at the exact moment of the dump.Option automatically turns --lock-tables off. -E, --events Dump events. -e, --extended-insert Use multiple-row INSERT syntax that include several VALUES lists. (Defaults to on; use --skip-extended-insert to disable.) --fields-terminated-by=name Fields in the output file are terminated by the given string. --fields-enclosed-by=name Fields in the output file are enclosed by the given character. --fields-optionally-enclosed-by=name Fields in the output file are optionally enclosed by the given character. --fields-escaped-by=name Fields in the output file are escaped by the given character. -F, --flush-logs Flush logs file in server before starting dump. Note that if you dump many databases at once (using the option --databases= or --all-databases), the logs will be flushed for each database dumped. The exception is when using --lock-all-tables or --master-data: in this case the logs will be flushed only once, corresponding to the moment all tables are locked. So if you want your dump and the log flush to happen at the same exact moment you should use --lock-all-tables or --master-data with --flush-logs. --flush-privileges Emit a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement after dumping the mysql database. This option should be used any time the dump contains the mysql database and any other database that depends on the data in the mysql database for proper restore. -f, --force Continue even if we get an SQL error. -?, --help Display this help message and exit. --hex-blob Dump binary strings (BINARY, VARBINARY, BLOB) in hexadecimal format. -h, --host=name Connect to host. --ignore-table=name Do not dump the specified table. To specify more than one table to ignore, use the directive multiple times, once for each table. Each table must be specified with both database and table names, e.g., --ignore-table=database.table. --include-master-host-port Adds 'MASTER_HOST=, MASTER_PORT=' to 'CHANGE MASTER TO..' in dump produced with --dump-slave. --insert-ignore Insert rows with INSERT IGNORE. --lines-terminated-by=name Lines in the output file are terminated by the given string. -x, --lock-all-tables Locks all tables across all databases. This is achieved by taking a global read lock for the duration of the whole dump. Automatically turns --single-transaction and --lock-tables off. -l, --lock-tables Lock all tables for read. (Defaults to on; use --skip-lock-tables to disable.) --log-error=name Append warnings and errors to given file. --master-data[=#] This causes the binary log position and filename to be appended to the output. If equal to 1, will print it as a CHANGE MASTER command; if equal to 2, that command will be prefixed with a comment symbol. This option will turn --lock-all-tables on, unless --single-transaction is specified too (in which case a global read lock is only taken a short time at the beginning of the dump; don't forget to read about --single-transaction below). In all cases, any action on logs will happen at the exact moment of the dump. Option automatically turns --lock-tables off. --max-allowed-packet=# The maximum packet length to send to or receive from server. --net-buffer-length=# The buffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication. --no-autocommit Wrap tables with autocommit/commit statements. -n, --no-create-db Suppress the CREATE DATABASE ... IF EXISTS statement that normally is output for each dumped database if --all-databases or --databases is given. -t, --no-create-info Don't write table creation info. -d, --no-data No row information. -N, --no-set-names Same as --skip-set-charset. --opt Same as --add-drop-table, --add-locks, --create-options, --quick, --extended-insert, --lock-tables, --set-charset, and --disable-keys. Enabled by default, disable with --skip-opt. --order-by-primary Sorts each table's rows by primary key, or first unique key, if such a key exists. Useful when dumping a MyISAM table to be loaded into an InnoDB table, but will make the dump itself take considerably longer. -p, --password[=name] Password to use when connecting to server. If password is not given it's solicited on the tty. -W, --pipe Use named pipes to connect to server. -P, --port=# Port number to use for connection. --protocol=name The protocol to use for connection (tcp, socket, pipe, memory). -q, --quick Don't buffer query, dump directly to stdout. (Defaults to on; use --skip-quick to disable.) -Q, --quote-names Quote table and column names with backticks (`). (Defaults to on; use --skip-quote-names to disable.) --replace Use REPLACE INTO instead of INSERT INTO. -r, --result-file=name Direct output to a given file. This option should be used in systems (e.g., DOS, Windows) that use carriage-return linefeed pairs (rn) to separate text lines. This option ensures that only a single newline is used. -R, --routines Dump stored routines (functions and procedures). --set-charset Add 'SET NAMES default_character_set' to the output. (Defaults to on; use --skip-set-charset to disable.) --set-gtid-purged[=name] Add 'SET @@GLOBAL.GTID_PURGED' to the output. Possible values for this option are ON, OFF and AUTO. If ON is used and GTIDs are not enabled on the server, an error is generated. If OFF is used, this option does nothing. If AUTO is used and GTIDs are enabled on the server, 'SET @@GLOBAL.GTID_PURGED' is added to the output. If GTIDs are disabled, AUTO does nothing. If no value is supplied then the default (AUTO) value will be considered. --shared-memory-base-name=name Base name of shared memory. --single-transaction Creates a consistent snapshot by dumping all tables in a single transaction. Works ONLY for tables stored in storage engines which support multiversioning (currently only InnoDB does); the dump is NOT guaranteed to be consistent for other storage engines. While a --single-transaction dump is in process, to ensure a valid dump file (correct table contents and binary log position), no other connection should use the following statements: ALTER TABLE, DROP TABLE, RENAME TABLE, TRUNCATE TABLE, as consistent snapshot is not isolated from them. Option automatically turns off --lock-tables. --dump-date Put a dump date to the end of the output. (Defaults to on; use --skip-dump-date to disable.) --skip-opt Disable --opt. Disables --add-drop-table, --add-locks, --create-options, --quick, --extended-insert, --lock-tables, --set-charset, and --disable-keys. -S, --socket=name The socket file to use for connection. --secure-auth Refuse client connecting to server if it uses old (pre-4.1.1) protocol. (Defaults to on; use --skip-secure-auth to disable.) --ssl Enable SSL for connection (automatically enabled with other flags). --ssl-ca=name CA file in PEM format (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl). --ssl-capath=name CA directory (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl). --ssl-cert=name X509 cert in PEM format (implies --ssl). --ssl-cipher=name SSL cipher to use (implies --ssl). --ssl-key=name X509 key in PEM format (implies --ssl). --ssl-crl=name Certificate revocation list (implies --ssl). --ssl-crlpath=name Certificate revocation list path (implies --ssl). --ssl-verify-server-cert Verify server's "Common Name" in its cert against hostname used when connecting. This option is disabled by default. -T, --tab=name Create tab-separated textfile for each table to given path. (Create .sql and .txt files.) NOTE: This only works if mysqldump is run on the same machine as the mysqld server. --tables Overrides option --databases (-B). --triggers Dump triggers for each dumped table. (Defaults to on; use --skip-triggers to disable.) --tz-utc SET TIME_ZONE='+00:00' at top of dump to allow dumping of TIMESTAMP data when a server has data in different time zones or data is being moved between servers with different time zones. (Defaults to on; use --skip-tz-utc to disable.) -u, --user=name User for login if not current user. -v, --verbose Print info about the various stages. -V, --version Output version information and exit. -w, --where=name Dump only selected records. Quotes are mandatory. -X, --xml Dump a database as well formed XML. --plugin-dir=name Directory for client-side plugins. --default-auth=name Default authentication client-side plugin to use. Variables (--variable-name=value) and boolean options {FALSE|TRUE} Value (after reading options) --------------------------------- ---------------------------------------- all-databases FALSE all-tablespaces FALSE no-tablespaces FALSE add-drop-database FALSE add-drop-table TRUE add-drop-trigger FALSE add-locks TRUE allow-keywords FALSE apply-slave-statements FALSE bind-address (No default value) character-sets-dir (No default value) comments TRUE compatible (No default value) compact FALSE complete-insert FALSE compress FALSE create-options TRUE databases FALSE debug-check FALSE debug-info FALSE default-character-set utf8 delayed-insert FALSE delete-master-logs FALSE disable-keys TRUE dump-slave 0 events FALSE extended-insert TRUE fields-terminated-by (No default value) fields-enclosed-by (No default value) fields-optionally-enclosed-by (No default value) fields-escaped-by (No default value) flush-logs FALSE flush-privileges FALSE force FALSE hex-blob FALSE host (No default value) include-master-host-port FALSE insert-ignore FALSE lines-terminated-by (No default value) lock-all-tables FALSE lock-tables TRUE log-error (No default value) master-data 0 max-allowed-packet 25165824 net-buffer-length 1046528 no-autocommit FALSE no-create-db FALSE no-create-info FALSE no-data FALSE order-by-primary FALSE port 0 quick TRUE quote-names TRUE replace FALSE routines FALSE set-charset TRUE shared-memory-base-name (No default value) single-transaction FALSE dump-date TRUE socket (No default value) secure-auth TRUE ssl FALSE ssl-ca (No default value) ssl-capath (No default value) ssl-cert (No default value) ssl-cipher (No default value) ssl-key (No default value) ssl-crl (No default value) ssl-crlpath (No default value) ssl-verify-server-cert FALSE tab (No default value) triggers TRUE tz-utc TRUE user (No default value) verbose FALSE where (No default value) plugin-dir (No default value) default-auth (No default value)

De meest belangrijke informatie is:

Usage: mysqldump [OPTIONS] database [tables]

Dit betekent dat we mysqldump kunnen aanroepen met [OPTIONS], de databasenaam en [tables]. We weten ook dat we de hele database willen back-uppen.

Omdat we niet weten of er Stored Procedures, Events en Triggers in de database aanwezig zijn, moeten deze opties ook meegenomen worden. En we moeten van afstand kunnen inloggen, wat een hostnaam, gebruikersnaam, wachtwoord en databasenaam vereist.

Dus, door even na te denken over wat we precies willen, hebben we hier alle informatie opgesomd die we als optie nodig hebben:

-E, --events Dump events. -h, --host=name Connect to host. --opt Same as --add-drop-table, --add-locks, --create-options, --quick, --extended-insert, --lock-tables, --set-charset, and --disable-keys. Enabled by default, disable with --skip-opt. -p, --password[=name] Password to use when connecting to server. If password is not given it's solicited on the tty. -R, --routines Dump stored routines (functions and procedures). -u, --user=name User for login if not current user.

en natuurlijk de databasenaam.

Hiermee wordt ons volledige MySQL back-up opdracht:

"C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Workbench 6.2 CE\mysqldump.exe" --host=mysql_hostnaam --opt --password=mysql_wachtwoord --routines --user=mysql_user mysql_databasenaam >> mysql_databasenaam.sql

Let op: door >> (of >) te gebruiken wordt de uitvoer van het commando opgeslagen in het bestand dat daarna opgegeven wordt (mysql_databasenaam.sql). Anders scrollt de uitvoer alleen over het scherm zonder dat er wat meegedaan wordt. Met >> wordt de uitvoer toegevoegd aan het bestand, met > wordt het bestand overschreven met de uitvoer. Pas hiervoor op.

Omdat in het pad naar mysqldump.exe spaties staan, moet het hele pad tussen dubbele quotes (") staan.

Protip: Maak gebruik van --ssl om de MySQL-verbinding met SSL of TLS te versleutelen, als jouw hostingprovider dat ondersteunt. Je kunt dan ook vanaf jouw website een beveiligde MySQL-verbinding maken zoals ik in 3 FAQ’s voor Vevida heb uitgelegd:

En voor WordPress een beveiligde MySQL-verbinding: SSL-beveiligde MySQL-verbinding in WordPress.

Conclusie MySQL back-ups maken

In dit artikel heb ik je twee eenvoudige manieren laten zien om snel een MySQL database back-up mee te maken. Een back-up van je database is, net als een website back-up erg belangrijk. Hiermee stel je je gegevens veilig in case of emergency. Helaas kom ik tijdens mijn werk nog té vaak tegen dat een website gehackt wordt en dat er geen zelfgemaakte back-ups beschikbaar zijn.

Lees in het artikel Met phpMyAdmin een MySQL back-up maken hoe je een MySQL back-up maakt met phpMyAdmin.

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